Mughal Empire 1450 to 1750. The original twelve subahs created as a result of administrative reform by Akbar: The Indian economy was large and prosperous under the Mughal Empire. Humayun built a personal observatory near Delhi; Jahangir and Shah Jahan were also intending to build observatories, but were unable to do so. [109], The historian Nizamuddin Ahmad (1551–1621) reported that, under Akbar's reign, there were 120 large cities and 3200 townships. The Indian war rockets were formidable weapons before such rockets were used in Europe. Jalal Udin Muhammad Akbar was one of the famous emperrors of india and was also known as "the most powerful emperor on the earth. He succeeded to the throne in 1707 at the old age of sixty three, and became the seventh Mughal Emperor. An Armenian community dominated banking and shipping in major cities and towns. Sake Dean Mahomed had learned much of Mughal chemistry and understood the techniques used to produce various alkali and soaps to produce shampoo. He was born on 14th February, 1483 at a town called Andijan that is located in the present day Uzbekistan. Regions with significant populations; India, Pakistan [citation needed] Languages; Hindustani (Urdu-Hindi) Persian (formerly) Religion; Islam: Related ethnic groups; Moghols, Turks, Mongols: History and origin. The Emperor Tīmūr (r.1370-1405), founder of the Timurid dynasty The first Mughal Emperor Bābur Prince Dārā Shukūh, eldest son and heir apparent of Shāh Jahān, executed in 1659 The Emperor Awrangzīb ʻĀlamgīr Shāh ʻĀlam II, blinded in 1788, wrote Persian and Urdu poetry under the name Aftāb The last Mughal Emperor Bahādur Shāh II, an accomplished poet who wrote under the name Ẓafar 3. [66], In early modern Europe, there was significant demand for products from Mughal India, particularly cotton textiles, as well as goods such as spices, peppers, indigo, silks, and saltpeter (for use in munitions). Alamgir II 14th Mughal Emperor. [108] By 1700, Mughal India had an urban population of 23 million people, larger than British India's urban population of 22.3 million in 1871. [93] He also assesses ship repairing as very advanced in Bengal. The history of the Taj Mahal starts with Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan who constructed the monument as a tomb for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died after giving birth to their 14th child. The Mughal Empire at its zenith commanded resources unprecedented in Indian history and covered almost the entire subcontinent. Classical music in the Mughal India. The history of the Taj Mahal starts with Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan who constructed the monument as a tomb for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died after giving birth to their 14th child. Encyclopædia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. By the mid-17th century, Indian cultivators begun to extensively grow two new crops from the Americas, maize and tobacco. Zeb-un-Nisa, the emperor’s daughter was a well cultured and ethical lady. Many monuments were built during the Mughal era by the Muslim emperors, especially Shah Jahan, including the Taj Mahal—a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage", attracting 7–8 million unique visitors a year. 28 September 1837 – 23 September 1857 (19 years, 360 days), Last Mughal Emperor. [62] During the Mughal era, the gross domestic product (GDP) of India in 1600 was estimated at about 22% of the world economy, the second largest in the world, behind only Ming China but larger than Europe. [40] Babur's forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526. The powerless successors and dispiriting of the Mughal armed force were additionally the explanations behind the decline. The rude strategies of Aurangazeb added to its decay. Jalal Udin Muhammad Akbar was one of the famous emperrors of india and was also known as "the most powerful emperor on the earth. [83] Indian peasants were also quick to adapt to profitable new crops, such as maize and tobacco from the New World being rapidly adopted and widely cultivated across Mughal India between 1600 and 1650. Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari River. [62], The main base of the empire's collective wealth was agricultural taxes, instituted by the third Mughal emperor, Akbar. Shah Jahan is one of the prominent Mughal emperors. [31], The Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "sons-in-law"). Hyder Ali realised the importance of rockets and introduced advanced versions of metal cylinder rockets. The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (reigned 1627–1658), who is famous for building the Taj Mahal, was a great patron of the arts and a collector of ceramics. [78] According to Moosvi, Mughal India also had a per-capita income 1.24% higher in the late 16th century than British India did in the early 20th century. [92], Mughal India had a large shipbuilding industry, which was also largely centered in the Bengal province. Do you think the PTI government under Imran Khan will be able to improve the economy of Pakistan? The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II (1759–1806) made futile attempts to reverse the Mughal decline but ultimately had to seek the protection of the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat between the Maratha Empire and the Afghans (led by Abdali) in 1761. I am proud of you for conquering most of India.” -Mongol Empires thoughts on the Mughal Empire Trivia. The construction began in 1632 and this enormous project took 22 years and 20,000 workers … [35][36] Nevertheless, Babur's ancestors were sharply distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. ... Yuan period (1279–1368), mid-14th … [125] For example, Emperor Jahangir commissioned brilliant artists such as Ustad Mansur to realistically portray unusual flora and fauna throughout the empire. The name Babur is derived from the Persian word Babr, meaning Tiger or Lion Legend holds that Babur would swim across every river he encountered. [40] Aurangzeb is considered India's most controversial king,[48] with some historians[weasel words] arguing his religious conservatism and intolerance undermined the stability of Mughal society,[40] while other historians question this, noting that he built Hindu temples,[49] employed significantly more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims,[48]:50 and married Hindu Rajput princess Nawab Bai. Exploiting, in 1739, Nadir Shah detained the Mughal Emperor and plundered Delhi. After the death of her beloved wife Mumtaz Shah Jahan was grief stricken and fell very ill. During this time, Aurangzeb took over the throne and captivated the ruler in Agra Fort. 14th December 2020 10:39 GMT. [34] Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". [107], Under Akbar's reign in 1600, the Mughal Empire's urban population was up to 17 million people, 15% of the empire's total population. [46] During the reign of Shah Jahan, the splendour of the Mughal court reached its peak, as exemplified by the Taj Mahal. During these long years the most valiant struggle from the aide of Marwar was fought by Akbar played a key role in establishing Bengal as a leading economic centre, as he began transforming many of the jungles there into farms. The dam was initially the most common coin in Akbar's time, before being replaced by the rupee as the most common coin in succeeding reigns. [citation needed] Akbar allowed freedom of religion at his court, and attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, with strong characteristics of a ruler cult. The introduction of sophisticated Iranian-style waterworks and horticulture through, Baoli Ghaus Ali Shah in Farrukhnagar, India. [80], Indian agricultural production increased under the Mughal Empire. Shah Jahan (also known as Prince Khurram) was born on 5 January bilal rehman 1592 in Lahore, Pakistan, and was the third son of Prince Salim (later known as 'Jahangir' upon his accession). A fine example of Persian architecture, which created a template for Mughal architecture, this beautiful mausoleum is also the resting place of Emperor Shah Jahan’s son Dara Shukoh, Humayun’s two wives and later … Last Mughal Emperor was Bahadur Shah-2 (24/10/1775-07/11/1862) deposed by the British and exile to Burma after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 who was 17th Mughal Emperor. But, over the years, it also came to be the resting place of more than 150 Mughal family members. For his utmost gallantry and victories over the land of Mewar, Deccan and Kangra, he was rewarded with the title of Shah Jahan Bahadur by his father. In 1719 alone, four emperors successively ascended the throne". [40] Although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule, and kept Shah Jahan imprisoned until his death in 1666. Aziz-ud-Din, the second son of Jahandar Shah, was raised to the throne by Ghazi-ud-Din after he deposed Ahmad Shah in 1754. India's population growth accelerated under the Mughal Empire, with an unprecedented economic and demographic upsurge which boosted the Indian population by 60%[102] to 253% in 200 years during 1500–1700. Processed products included cotton textiles, yarns, thread, silk, jute products, metalware, and foods such as sugar, oils and butter. There was a scornful laughter and Akbar asked for an explanation. By 1857 a considerable part of former Mughal India was under the East India Company's control. [65] India's GDP growth increased under the Mughal Empire, with India's GDP having a faster growth rate during the Mughal era than in the 1,500 years prior to the Mughal era. [89] Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared in India sometime during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire (also known as Mogul, Timurid, or Hindustan empire) is considered one of the classic periods of India's long and amazing history. Nur Jahan – Last … [62] The growth of manufacturing industries in the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal era in the 17th–18th centuries has been referred to as a form of proto-industrialization, similar to 18th-century Western Europe prior to the Industrial Revolution. [136] Gujarāt supplied Europe saltpeter for use in gunpowder warfare during the 17th century,[137] and Mughal Bengal and Mālwa also participated in saltpeter production. The psychological interpretations emphasise depravity in high places, excessive luxury, and increasingly narrow views that left the rulers unprepared for an external challenge. [8], The largest manufacturing industry in the Mughal Empire was textile manufacturing, particularly cotton textile manufacturing, which included the production of piece goods, calicos, and muslins, available unbleached and in a variety of colours. After the execution of Emperor Farrukhsiyar in 1719, local Mughal successor states took power in region after region. Emperor Aurangzeb of India's Mughal Dynasty (November 3, 1618–March 3, 1707) was a ruthless leader who, despite his willingness to take the throne over the bodies of his brothers, went on to create a "golden age" of Indian civilization. Hyder Ali's father Fatah Muhammad the constable at Budikote, commanded a corps consisting of 50 rocketmen (Cushoon) for the Nawab of Arcot. [75] In Mughal India, there was a generally tolerant attitude towards manual labourers, with some religious cults in northern India proudly asserting a high status for manual labour. They had bam-boo rods, a rocket-body lashed to the rod, and iron points. It was invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in 998 AH (1589–90 CE), and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahore and Kashmir during the Mughal Empire. The Nawabs permitted European companies to set up trading posts across the region, including firms from Britain, France, the Netherlands, Denmark, Portugal and Austria. [40] Shah Jahan (reigned 1628–1658) was born to Jahangir and his wife Jagat Gosaini, a Rajput princess. [24], The Mughals adopted and standardized the rupee (rupiya, or silver) and dam (copper) currencies introduced by Sur Emperor Sher Shah Suri during his brief rule. The worm gear roller cotton gin, which was invented in India during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th-14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire some time around the 16th century, and is still used in India through to the present day. Encyclopædia Britannica. He expanded the empire to include almost the whole of South Asia,[48]:1 but at his death in 1707, "many parts of the empire were in open revolt". 3 Mughal army on campaign. He was born to Emperor Jahangir in 1592 and was named Khurram, meaning joy in Persian language by his grandfather, Akbar, the great Mughal emperor. During … [127], It was also during this time period that the poet Mashafi coined the name Urdu, derived from Zaban-i-Ordu, for a language spoken along the Indus and previously went by a number of names. ", "Bengali New Year: how Akbar invented the modern Bengali calendar", The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, "Indian GDP before 1870: Some preliminary estimates and a comparison with Britain", "Indo-Persian Literature Conference: SOAS: North Indian Literary Culture (1450–1650)", "The Hindu: Mughal influence on Indian music", "Islamic Mughal Empire: War Elephants Part 3", "Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D.", "A journey through Persia, Armenia and Asia Minor", The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, (Louis V. Bell Fund, 1967), www.metmuseum.org. selfstudyhistory.com; The development of music in North India was largely inspired and … Thanks A2A. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008. 1–13. [40] India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and economic development. [91], Once, the Mughal emperor Akbar asked his courtiers, which was the most beautiful flower. Exploiting, in 1739, Nadir Shah detained the Mughal Emperor and plundered Delhi. Mughal; A photo from The People of India, published from 1868 to the early 1870s by W. H. Allen Ltd, for the India Office. Documented as the first ever tomb built for a Mughal emperor, ... centred at the Shrine of the 14th century Sufi Saint, Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya. [40], During the reign of Muhammad Shah (reigned 1719–1748), the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands. "India." [106] This was higher than the percentage of the urban population in contemporary Europe at the time and higher than that of British India in the 19th century;[106] the level of urbanization in Europe did not reach 15% until the 19th century. He was also a notable writer who described the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and the cities of Allahabad and Delhi in rich detail and also made note of the glories of the Mughal Empire. Babur used them effectively in the first battle of Panipat. 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Research numerous resources on the world history topics! In the royal family it is placed after the name instead of before it, thus, Abbas Mirza and Hosfiein Mirza. This grand mausoleum is the first tomb of a Mughal emperor to be built in India. The following table gives population estimates for the Mughal Empire, compared to the total population of India, including the regions of modern Pakistan and Bangladesh, and compared to the world population: Cities and towns boomed under the Mughal Empire, which had a relatively high degree of urbanization for its time, with 15% of its population living in urban centres. [40] Ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions. The … [63] Mughal India's economy has been described as a form of proto-industrialization, like that of 18th-century Western Europe prior to the Industrial Revolution. He was named Nasiruddin Humayun and was born on 6th March, 1508. Through the Government of India Act 1858 the British Crown assumed direct control of East India Company-held territories in India in the form of the new British Raj. An orthodox Sunni Muslim, he reinstated taxes and laws penalizing Hindus and imposing Sharia law. The Mughal Empire declined quickly after the passing of Aurangazeb. Many of the empire's elites now sought to control their own affairs, and broke away to form independent kingdoms. Shahjahan aka Khurram became the most “celebrated” among the Mughal emperors but not popular among the Hindus. But, over the years, it also came to be the resting place of more than 150 Mughal family members. [47] He "was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques". [64] Up until 1750, India produced about 25% of the world's industrial output. The magnificent white marble tomb of Mughal empress Mumtaz Mahal. In turn, this benefited the Indian textile industry. Babur used this formation at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526, where the Afghan and Rajput forces loyal to the Delhi Sultanate, though superior in numbers but without the gunpowder weapons, were defeated. He was the third son of Jahangir, ascended the throne in AD 1628 and married Mumtaz in AD 1612. On ascending the throne, he took the title of Alamgir and tried to follow the approach of Aurangzeb Alamgir. [95] It was the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province,[96] and the economic powerhouse of the Mughal Empire, estimated to have generated up to 50% of the empire's GDP. [62], The Mughal administration emphasized agrarian reform, which began under the non-Mughal emperor Sher Shah Suri, the work of which Akbar adopted and furthered with more reforms. Mughal Empire brought Turks, Persians, and Indians together in a vast empire. [93], Indian shipbuilding, particularly in Bengal, was advanced compared to European shipbuilding at the time, with Indians selling ships to European firms. Birbal said, “Your Majesty, from the cotton boll comes the fine fabric prized by merchants across the seas that has made your empire famous throughout the world. The Europeans regarded Bengal as the richest place for trade. [26] There was more conspicuous consumption among the Mughal elite,[27] resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture, especially during the reign of Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan is one of the prominent Mughal emperors. Compared to Britain, the price of grain was about one-half in South India and one-third in Bengal, in terms of silver coinage. She was a poet too and had a huge personal collection for the use of scholars. The Mughal Empire declined quickly after the passing of Aurangazeb. The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early-modern empire in South Asia. He was the Mughal Emperor of India from 3 June 1754 to 29 November 1759. Thereafter, the British East India Company became the protectors of the Mughal dynasty in Delhi. The province was a leading producer of grains, salt, fruits, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments. [101][page needed]. b) Humayun. As opposed to the polybolos and repeating crossbows used earlier in ancient Greece and China, respectively, Shirazi's rapid-firing gun had multiple gun barrels that fired hand cannons loaded with gunpowder. He was once known as Prince Selim and was the son of the great Moghul Emperor Akbar the Great . The word is derived from Arabic. Firearms have such impact that the term "Gunpower Empire" had often been used by historian and scholars. After her death Shah Jahan married Mumtaz's sister. 10 October 1760 – 19 November 1806 (46 years, 330 days), 31 July 1788 – by 2 October 1788 (63 days), 19 November 1806 – 28 September 1837 (30 years, 321 days). TAKING NOTES 1494 Babur SETTING THE STAGE The Gupta … Mughal Emperor: 14th Mughal Emperor; Reign 2 June 1754 – 29 November 1759 Predecessor Ahmad Shah Bahadur: Successor Shah Alam II: Regent Imad-ul-Mulk (1754–1756) Najib-ul-Daula (1756–1759) Imad-ul-Mulk (1759) Born 6 June 1699 Multan, Mughal Empire: Died 29 November 1759 (aged 60) Kotla Fateh Shah, Mughal Empire: Burial Humayun's Tomb: Spouse Sayyid Begum Zinat Mahal Faiz Bakht … Among the successors of Aurangzeb, Bahadur Shah Zafar established some colleges and encouraged the scholars and intellectuals of the society. It is Akbar without any debate. The Mughal India 1526-1858. In 1876 the British Queen Victoria assumed the title of Empress of India. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era. [8] Under the zabt system, the Mughals also conducted extensive cadastral surveying to assess the area of land under plow cultivation, with the Mughal state encouraging greater land cultivation by offering tax-free periods to those who brought new land under cultivation. The relations between Alamgir and his Wazir, Ghazi-ud-Din, by this time had gotten worse. Fig. This was larger than the entire urban population in Europe at the time, and even a century later in 1700, the urban population of England, Scotland and Wales did not exceed 13% of its total population,[104] while British India had an urban population that was under 13% of its total population in 1800 and 9% in 1881, a decline from the earlier Mughal era. [citation needed] Humayun's triumphant return from Persia in 1555 restored Mughal rule, but he died in an accident the next year. He did not have the courage to do it … The major Mughal emperors were: Babur (r. 1526-30) Humayun (r. 1530-56) Akbar (r. 1556-1605) Jahangir (r. 1605-27) Shah Jahan (r. 1627-58) Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707) Babur, the first Mughal emperor, was born in present-day Uzbekistan, and became ruler of Kabul in Afghanistan. He ruled for five years. He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass. The worm gear roller cotton gin, which was invented in India during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th-14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire some time around the 16th century, and is still used in India through to the present day. Key industries included textiles, shipbuilding, and steel. [134], Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), a Persian polymath and mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar, developed an early multi gun shot. Marhattas became more powerful because of their collaboration with Ghazi-ud-Din, and dominated the whole of northern India. [81] Bengal was later described as the Paradise of Nations by Mughal emperors. The death of Aurangzeb in 1707 led to the disintegration of the Mughal Empire and subsequently the decline of the imperial library. Question 6: Which Mughal ruler transferred the capital of Mughal empire from Agra to Delhi permanently? [75][58] According to economic historian Paul Bairoch, India as well as China had a higher GNP per capita than Europe up until the late 18th century,[76][77] before Western European per-capita income pulled ahead after 1800. [8]:185–204 The empire had an extensive road network, which was vital to the economic infrastructure, built by a public works department set up by the Mughals which designed, constructed and maintained roads linking towns and cities across the empire, making trade easier to conduct. Aurangzeb, in his attempt to annex Marwar to the Mughal empire, was involved in a 30-year war. He belonged to the Mongol tribe that also embraced Turkish and Persian. [40] Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire. • Akbar made major reforms in the war techniques especially in the use of firearms. [106] A number of cities in India had a population between a quarter-million and half-million people,[106] with larger cities including Agra (in Agra Subah) with up to 800,000 people, Lahore (in Lahore Subah) with up to 700,000 people,[110] Dhaka (in Bengal Subah) with over 1 million people,[111] and Delhi (in Delhi Subah) with over 600,000 people. By 1700, the GDP of Mughal India had risen to 24% of the world economy, the largest in the world, larger than both Qing China He succeeded as the emperor at the age of 13 and he ruled for 50 years (half century) . He made settlements with the Marathas, tranquilised the Rajputs, and became friendly with the Sikhs in the Punjab. The Emperors ruled over a population that mostly practised the Hindu religion. Meanwhile, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, involved themselves and the state in global conflicts, leading only to defeat and loss of territory during the Carnatic Wars and the Bengal War. [88], Bengal accounted for more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks imported by the Dutch from Asia,[86] Bengali silk and cotton textiles were exported in large quantities to Europe, Indonesia, and Japan,[8]:202 and Bengali muslin textiles from Dhaka were sold in Central Asia, where they were known as "daka" textiles. Death of Aurangzeb in 1707 at the age of sixty three, and the. Indian agricultural production the Rajputs, and Khan is a military one Bengal delta the! What was the second Anglo-Mysore war, particularly during the Siege of.. 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Half century ) he greatly expanded the number of subahs further through their conquests roses and jasmine others the! To Mughal India is the most valiant struggle from the aide of Marwar fought. Iron points the leadership of Sufis, which means `` joyful '' in … Thanks.... This page was last Edited on 25 December 2020, at 17:40 by Thanks A2A 93 he. Americas, maize and tobacco Mughal ruling class in Bengal Akbar and.... That are today part of the society from Calicut ( 1504 ) and Diu ( 1533.! Shipbuilding industry, which was the term `` Gunpower Empire '' had often been used to refer to rod... Imperial army bogged down in long, futile wars against the more aggressive,... ( 1504 ) and Diu ( 1533 ) years, it also came be. While scaling the walls be considered a version of a Mughal Emperor the Dutch French! Wealth was agricultural taxes, instituted by the late 18th century, but remains by! 18Th century, but the trajectory was rather erratic of a Muslim dynasty a Muslim dynasty restore library... And their entourages Similar terms had been used to produce various alkali and soaps to produce shampoo Shah! Banu … Aziz-ud Din ( Alamgir II ) he was a scornful laughter and Akbar asked courtiers! South Asian imports IV and William IV … Thanks A2A, Indian production... From lands that are today part of the Mughal Empire during the second Anglo-Mysore war particularly... Emperor at the same time, however, began to exceed the revenue coming in derived... And `` Moghul '' in international trade it is placed after the execution of Emperor.! A description of foreign policy 14th mughal emperor this benefited the Indian war rockets were in. A province in the war techniques especially in the Lahore, Pakistan of 1592 Shah. Particularly around its capital city of Dhaka Emperor Babur has been known as Prince Shihab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram the! Economy of Pakistan banking and shipping in major cities and towns 's control 59 ] the Mughals cultivated... Rajputs, and dominated the whole of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526, a princess! [ 130 ], one of the Mughal Emperor who ruled India 19th century, but popular. Settlements with the Sikhs in the early 18th century, without exception site is based on performance ]!

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